Baghlan province is located in the North East of Afghanistan with the total area of 21,118 km². The world Baghlan came from Bagolango which means “Image Temple”; the name came from a famous town in the province, Baghlan. Its capital is Puli Kumri and the approximate population of the province is 1.06 million but along with this, it has 16 districts. The ruins of Surkh Kotal & Zoroastrian’s fire temple are also located in this province.
60% of the total population comprise of Tajiks, followed by Hazaras that take up 20% and Pashtun & Uzbeks, which compromise 12% & 8% of the population respectively. The major population of this province speaks Persian which is why it is considered as the most overpoweringly language in this region.
Just like other regions in Afghanistan, this province also has a vast history. In the early 2nd century this region was ruled by Kanishka who was an emperor of Kushan dynasty. In mid 7th century the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang travelled through Baghlan and called it the “Kingdom of Fo-Kia-Lang”
Then in the 13th Century, Mongol’s garrison reached Kunduz-Baghlan area and got accommodation over there. In 1253 Mongke Khan appointed Sail Noyan Tatar in this region. After him, his position was inherited to his son Uladu and then his grandson Baktut. By the 14th century Turco-Mongol troops formed an alliance with Chaghataite Khanate under the rule of Temur. In 1494 Uzbek invaded the area and it came under the jurisdiction of the Qipchaq emir.
In the Mid-20th century, agricultural industry was initiated in Baghlan with the support of international development. In this era factories for the production of sugar from sugar beets were setup. Along with that vegetable oil producing factories also established with the support of Czech experts. The province also produce grapes, pistachio and pomegranates. Czech experts also help Baghlan in developing their coal-mining industry.
In 1982 during the Afghan-Soviet war, Soviet’s established the Kayan Military base in southern Baghlan which was defended by more than 10,000 Ismaili Militants who were supporting the Soviet’s due to their differences. This was ended when Ismaili leader Sayed Mansur Naderi accepted soviet support and that’s why a large portion of Baghlan and the neighbouring Samangan Province remained under the power of the Naderi Clan, who were supported to soviets.
During the Afghan War in 2001 the Ismaili leader Sayed Mansoor Naderi tried to retake Baghlan from the Taliban’s. Even after having a strong backing of Afghan Ismailis and Shia Hazaras, he was failed to retake the capital in 2001 & 2003. Later on they had the entered in a negotiation power sharing agreement with dominant Andarabi Militants.
In June 2012 Afghanistan was hit by two major earthquakes, these earthquakes caused massive land sliding in the Burka district of Baghlan province. Due to land sliding, a village Sayi Hazara was buried 30 meter below the rocks.
Abdul Sattar Bariz is the present governor of the province and the law and enforcement activities in this province are controlled by Afghan National Police (ANP), which is lead by a Provincial Chief who represents Ministry of Interior in Kabul.
The provincial government is working on the development of the province and we see a significant improvement in the education and healthcare sector of the province.