Just like rest of Afghanistan, the Kapisa province also has a vast history,. The name first appears in the writing of an Indian scholar Panini in 5th century BCE. He refers to it as a city of Kapisa Kingdom and he also mentioned in his writing about the famous wine from Kapisa known as Kapisayana. The Kapisayana Draksha (grapes) and Kapisayana Madhu (wine) was also mentioned in various other ancient Indian literatures. Even the Mahabharata also mentioned about the common practice of captivity in the region.
Archeological exploration in 1939 confirmed about the Kapisayana wine and declared the city of Kapisa as an emporium of it. They found numerous glass bottles, various wine jars which were fish shaped and drinking cups which clearly shows the wine trade of the era. The archeologists also found the Greco-Indian coins of Apollodotus I and Eucratides in which the city of Kapisa can be looked as Kavisiye.
The Chandragupta Maurya of Murya Empire took over the territory and introduced Hinduism and Buddhism in the region. They tried to capture more area of Central Asia but faced furious resistance by Greco-Bactrian forces.
Alexander the Great conquered the area by defeating Indo-Aryans and established his own settlement.Soon after his death his empire trembled and it was divided among the Generals of his army. This region came under the influence of Seleucus who then placed the foundation of Seleucus Empire. It is said that after ,this Seleucus reached a peace treaty with Chandragupta under which the territory to the south of Hindu Kush was given to Mauryas upon intermarriage and 500 elephants.
Chandragupta has his throne while Seleucus was building foundation of his future greatness. After the peace treaty he settled his affairs in the east and joined the war against Antigonus. After the association of their forces, they fought the battle in which Antigonus was killed and his son Demetruis flees from the area.
As Chandragupta was holding consolidated power in the northwest, he pushed himself to the east for conquering more area where he fought the Nanda Empire.
In 644 AD when the chinese traveler Xuanzang visited the area, it was under the rule of Buddhist Kingdom. The area along with other ten neighbouring states including Lampaka, Gadhara and Banu was under the control of the Kshatriya King. Xuanzang mentioned that the area has sheen bread of horses and it also produces various types of fruits and cereals.
The archeological exploration had also found various Buddhist heritages in this region. Some of these are religious and some are artistic remnants. It is believed that the Buddhist doctrine had reached as far as Balkh during the Life of Buddha.
Smugglers looted many historical sites in the Kapisa province and then sold them abroad. Between 2009 and 2010, the International Security Forces discovered more than 27 ruins that belonged to 2 BC and 4 BC from the Kohistan district of the province. It is believed that this was part of Khilji Dynasty.