In the 10th century, the territory was ruled by Ghaznavid which is why the area was known as Ghazna. The area was capital of the Ghaznavids Empire from 994 to 1160.
The Ghazni province is located in the southeast of Afghanistan with a covering area of 22,915 km²; the province is divided into 19 districts that cover thousands of villages. It is situated on the Kabul-Kandahar highway which was historically an important trade center. The city of Ghazni is the administrative capital of the province and the Ghazni Airport is located next to the city, from where scheduled domestic flights move to Kabul.
As per estimated the approximate population of the province is 1.438 million which is multi ethnic and a mostly tribal society. It is believed that this is one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of Afghanistan. The Pashtun dominates the region with 52% of the population followed by the Hazara who compromise 42% and 4.7% of the population is Tajiks. The majority of these Tajiks are residing in the provincial capital. There is also less than 1% Hindus who exist in this area.
The primary source of income for the Ghazni inhabitants is agriculture and animal husbandry. The province produce some fine quality of wheat, alfalfa, melons and almonds which are also being exported to other provinces.
The present governor of the province is Wahidullah Kalimzai. All the law enforcement activities in the province are monitored by the Afghan National Police (ANP) which is backed by the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). Afghan Local Police (ALP) also keeps a strong liaison with ANP for security measures. ANP reports to the provincial police chief who represent the Ministry of Interior in Kabul.
Some geographical surveys have been conducted in the province and the results are astonishing; as per these surveys, the province has some fine deposits of lithium, gold and copper which have an estimated worth of US$ 30 billion.
Sardeh Band Dam is located in the Andar district of the province; it has a large water reservoir which is crucial for the irrigation of the Khanjoor farming zone. The Government is working of repair and maintenance of the dam and its canal system.
A key development project has been started which is giving employment opportunities to more than 2,000 people. The estimated cost of the project was $30 million (out of which $10 million will be provided by central government). The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT), which is being led by the Polish, will contribute $7 million and $3 million will be contributed by US. Under this project, an Islamic cultural center will be established which will include a mosque, a gymnasium, a guesthouse, a cover bazaar, an airport, a five store hotel and two 27 story building’s for Ghazni residents.
It is also planned that the electricity facility to the province will be provided by connecting to national electrical distribution system via northeast power system (NEPS). The high voltage transmission line will be installed from east Chimtala to Ghazni. This project was delayed due to some funding issues.
Just like the rest of Afghanistan the education sector and healthcare sector of the Ghazni province has also shown a dip with respect to previous years which deems immediate attention. The literacy rate of the province has fallen by 5%, with respect to previous years.