The province got its name from the early principality of Juzjan. Jowzjan is located in the north west of Afghanistan with the covering area of 11,798 km²; the province is divided into 9 districts which are further divided into 100 villages. 70% of the total area of the province is made up of flat land which is being used for agricultural purposes while the remaining 30% is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain. Sheberghan serves as the administrative capital of the province. It is assumed that the province also holds some deposits of petroleum and natural gas.
The approximate population of the province is 0.634 million which is multi-ethinic and mostly tribal. The Uzbek language dominates the areas as it is being spoken by 40% of the total population followed by Turkmen and Pashto which is spoken by 29% and 17% of the population respectively. Dari is another language which is spoken by the 12% remaining of the population.
The province shares its border with local provinces by having Balkh in the east, in the south and west is Sar-e-pol and Faryab. It also shares its border with a neighbouring country Turkmenistan in the north.
Between the 16th and mid-18th century the area was governed by Khanate of Bukhara, after which in 1750s Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered it and made it a part of the Durrani Empire. During the three Anglo-Afghan wars with the British the area remained untouched and safe.
After the Taliban regime the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) was established in 2005 which was being led by the Swedes and had its base in Mazar-e-Sharif. Keeping in view the security conditions of the province in the summer of 2010 a new Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) was established with the support of the Turkish for providing security to the area.
In April 2012 Afghanistan signed in a contract with neighbouring country Turkmenistan for the construction of mega power network under which 500 megawatts of electricity will be transmitted in Afghanistan through power towers. The project was supported by Turkmenistan and Turkey governments. Under this project Turkmenistan will install power towers in their soil over the distance of 38 kilometres facing the Afghanistan border. The network will help in providing the electricity to many areas of Jowzjan, Balkh, Sar-e-Pol, Faryab and Kabul.
The present governor of the province is Murad Quenili who replaced Mohammad Aleem Sayee in July 2013. Afghan National Police (ANP) is responsible for looking after all the law enforcement activities within the provincial jurisdiction which is backed by Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). On the other hand Afghan Border Police (ABP) is assigned to look after all the bordering activities with neighbouring country Turkmenistan. Both Afghan National Police (ANP) and Afghan Border Police (ABP) reports to the provincial police chief who represents the Ministry of Interior in Kabul.
Both of the healthcare sector and education sector of the province did show improvement with respect to previous years by which the literacy rate of the province has increased by 25% while the net enrolment rate has also increased to 45%.