In the historical texts the area has been called by various names like “Lampaka”, “Lamghan” & “Lamghanat”. Laghman is located in the East of Afghanistan and has an area of 3,843 km², it is comprised of 5 districts which are further divided into hundreds of villages. The Mihtarlam city serves as the capital of the province.
The approximate population of the province is 0.521 million which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. Pashtun tribe dominates the region with 51% of the total population followed by Tajiks & Pashai who are 27% and 21% respectively. The majority of the population of the province is practicing Sunni Islam.
The province is known for its greenness and vast agricultural fields of various kinds of fruits and vegetables are being cultivated in this region. The main crops that are being cultivated in the province are rice, wheat and cotton and majority of the population of the province earn their living by agricultural trade. The water needed of the province is fulfilled by two rivers; the Alingar River and Alinshang River that run through the province.
It is believed that Laghman province also have some gigantic deposits of precious stones and minerals, the area holds the untapped sources of Spodumene & Tournmaline gemstones which are in abundance on the northern portion of the province.
From the province, archeologists had found the Aramaic inscription which was a bureaucratic script language of Achaemenids Empire; this depicts an early trade route between Palmyra and India. These inscriptions show the discussion between Ashoka to Buddhism. Archeologists had also discovered some popular Yaksha shrines which belonged to 1st to 3rd century; it is assumed that Yaksh Kalahapriya was worshipped in Lampaka.
A Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited Laghman in 7th century and considered it a part of India, he also pointed out the presence of Mahayana Buddhists and several Hindus in the region.
Islam was introduced in the area by Sabuktigin who raided Laghman under Alp-tegin. He passed the Khyber Pass and attacked the territory of Jayapala. He attacked the outer forts of the Kabul Shahi province and seized many cities and also implemented Islam in these cities. In response of this invasion Jayapala marched into the valley with large force where he clashed with Sabuktigin and his son. This remained an unsuccessful invasion after which Jayapala returned to Waihind after signing a peace treaty.
Later on Jayapala broke the treaty after which Sabuktigin launched another invasion by attacking Lamghan and occupying it, after that he demolished the temples and shrines in the area and implemented Islam. After this Jayapala assembled his army again for an attack on Sabuktigin Empire, the second battle took place in 988 A.D which was won by Sabuktigin. After him the area fell under the rule of Ghurids followed by Khillis and Timurids.
The Mughal ruler Babur spent so much time in Laghman in the early 16th century; at that time Laghman was recognized as a dependent district of Kabulistan. After the Mughals in 1747 Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered the area and made it a part of Durrani Empire.
During the Soviet-Afghan war, many homes and business establishments were destroyed and Soviets also destroyed the agricultural infrastructure of Laghman.
Fazlullah Mujadedi is the present governor of the province. Afghan National Police (ANP) controlled all the law enforcement activates of the province which is backed by Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). Afghan National Police (ANP) is led by a provincial police chief who represents Ministry of Interior in Kabul.
The healthcare sector and education sector have shown significant improvement with respect to previous years. The literacy rate of the province has increased by 15% while the net enrolment rate has increased to 54%