After the exile of Zahir Shah, Daud Khan comes back in power with the help of the Afghan army. At that time, it was believed that he was moving back to the old traditional ways. In 1977 a new constitution promoted Daud to the role of president; a cabinet of associates was also formulated in which he added some of his royal relatives. Due to this, Afghanistan witnessed a fierce revolution in 1978 also known as the Saur revolution which put Afghanistan on an entire new course.
Reform & Reaction (1978-1979)
Daud’s government was removed from power and most of his family members were killed by a group within the army. When the revolution was complete, the army handed over the control of the nation to 2 political parties; the people party and the banner party. Both parties worked in harmony but for a short time.
After being in the government, two leaders of the people party took the hold of power. Nur Mohammad Taraki became the President and Prime Minister and Hafizullah Amin became one of the two deputy prime ministers. Babrak Karmal, a leader of banner party was also appointed as the deputy prime minister, soon after that he was posted abroad as the ambassador to Prague.
After the departure of Babrak Karmal, Taraki & Amin accelerated reform programs, through these programs women rights program were introduced, land was redistributed. All these reform programs were against the advice of Moscow, as they wanted a careful approach so that there will be no reaction from Muslims. In the same time government started to victimize the leaders of the banner party and even killed few leaders. The survived leaders just like Babrak Karmal had to take asylum in Russia.
Soon it was proved that Moscow was right, Afghan government faced an immense resistance in March 1979 when a group declared Jihad against the godless government in Kabul. In the same month 100 of Soviet citizens residing in Heart were detained and killed.
The disagreement between the two leader of the people party Taraki & Amin stared to raise, On September 1979 Taraqi tried to assassinate Amin but after two days he was captured by Amin’s supporters and then 3 weeks later he died due to serious illness.
Since 1978 it was seen that Soviet presence was increasing in the region gradually, now after the massacre of soviet citizens Moscow decided to take more active role and by December Soviet troops entered in Kabul. Russia was trying to take control of Afghanistan while British knew that it’s an unwise ambition.
Soviet Invasion 1979-1989
After the soviet invasion the Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin was found dead in his place, the cause of death is still unclear as if he was assassinated or committed suicide. In his replacement Russians brought Babrak Karmal as a puppet ruler but under these circumstances ruling Afghanistan was impossible.
Russian tanks were roaming all over Afghanistan and could take any town and Russian plans were bombing even the remote valleys into temporary submission, but as soon as the focus of military shifts the guerillas take back the control on ground. Kabul was the only area which remained safe in 10 years of devastation. The war between Russia and Mujaheddin not only destroyed the economy of the country but it also depopulated it. Approx. 2 million refugees moved to Pakistan and 1.8 million to Iran.
After Mikhail Gorbachev come in power in 1985 he first attempted to bring a political solution to this issue. Babrak Karmal was replaced with Mohammad Najibullah the former chief of police, even Najibullah failed in convincing the Afghan people for soviet presence. After this Gobrachev decided to pull out the soviet troops from the region and announcement of phased withdrawal of troops was made on 1988. The last battalion of troops exited Afghanistan in 1989 and left the president Najibullah to run the Afghan state on its own.
Najibullah remained in power for three years but in 1992 his opponents attacked Kabul and took control. He asked for a safe passage but UN was unable to escort him out of the city so he was given asylum in the UN compound in Kabul.