Takhar was established in 1964 after dividing Qataghan into 3 provinces; Baghan, Kunduz and Takhar. It is located on northeast of Afghanistan and have an area of 12,333 km² the province comprise of 16 districts and more than 1,000 villages. Talagon serves as the capital of the province.
The approximate population of the province is 1.15 million which is multi-ethic and mostly a rural society. Tajiks ethnicity leads with 65% of the total population followed by Uzbeks who are 25% of the total population. There are some other ethnic groups like Pashtuns, Hazaras & Turkmen who are also the inhabitants of the province.
The province shares its border with the neighbouring country Tajikistan which is on the northeast of the province. It is also surrounded by other provinces; for instance on the east is Badakhshan, Panjshir is located on the south while Baghan and Kunduz are on the west.
The area was ruled by the Khanate of Bukhara between 16th century and mid-18th century. After that in 1750 it came under the jurisdiction of Ahmed Shah Durrani after signing a friendship treaty with Murad Beg of Bukara. It was ruled by the Durranis and then by the Barakzai dynasty and during the 3 Anglo-Afghan wars the territory remained untouched.
After the Soviet Afghan war in 1980, the area came under the influence of Rabbani & Ahmed Shah Massoud. In 1990, the province experienced some fighting between the Taliban and Northern Alliance, after which on September 09, 2001 the Mujahideen commander Ahmed Shah Massoud was assassinated in the same province by Al-Qaeda agents.
After the assassination of Ahmed Shah Massoud, International Security Assistant Forces (ISAF) took the charge of the province and with the support of ISAF, Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) was established. In July 2008 the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and Afghan National Police (ANP) stopped a raid of Taliban militants who attacked the police checkpoint in the Kalafgan district. In this retaliation, a most senior Taliban commander Mullah Usman was also killed.
The earthquake of October 2015 shook the province and destroyed more than 30,000 houses. In this natural catastrophe several hundred people were dead and more than 1,700 were injured.
The present governor of the province is Abdul Haq Shafaq. All the law enforcement activities in the province are administrated by Afghan National Police (ANP) which is backed by the military, while the activities on the border with neighbouring country Tajikistan are monitored by Afghan Border Police (ABP). Both ABP and ANP are led by a provincial police chief who represents the Ministry of Interior in Kabul.
The economy of the province is driven by the agriculture and mining industry. Takhar have some fair good quality of coal reserves which are being exploited and sold in the region. Apart from that, the province is also known for its salt mountains and there are large deposits of fine salt in the region. The Takhar River also washes gold with it; as per locals gold is the most relevant resource of the province. The city also provides some fine quality of construction material like loam, sand & various kinds of stones.
The education sector and healthcare sector of the province still needs a lot of improvement and government is taking corrective measures in developing these sectors.