After the USA attacks of September 11, 2001 the situation in the whole Afghanistan changed. The first assumption that was made in Washington was this attack was done by the Al-Qaeda organisation which is being led by Osama Bin Laden. Many foreign nations showed concerns on this allegation and they didn’t prick their ears on it, although Bush administration was able to convenience sufficient leaders of foreign nations for making an alliance against Al-Qaeda including the neighbouring Pakistan.
Bin Laden was residing in Afghanistan and had strong ties with Taliban leaders, so the first thing the US demanded from Taliban is to handover Bin Laden and close the Al-Qaeda training camps in the country. Upon this demand, the Taliban leader Mullah Omar responded that he is unable to do this as he does not know where Bin Laden is, He was also reluctant in surrendering a guest who shares the same fundamentalist views and did provide ample financial support to Taliban and whose forces are equally strong.
After this president Bush declared this campaign as “War against Terrorism” and who do not cooperate will be considered terrorist as well.
After this, in October 2001 America started its operation in Afghanistan known as “Enduring Freedom” under which 7 missiles attack were launched against Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this started a bombing campaign which lasted till the early week of 2002. Lot of civilian casualties were observed in this bombing campaign but the US bombardment was quite accurate as it destroyed Al-Qaeda training camps and many Taliban military installations as well. After this, the Taliban infantry dug one in the ground.
The Northern Alliance was also a natural ally of US but they were reluctant in sending their own soldiers for ground campaign as they already survived a long defensive war in contradiction of the Taliban. Now when they saw that the Taliban position is being weaken due to US bombing, they advance their forces for sudden gains.
By November 9th they were able to take Mazar-e-Sharif and after four days, Kabul also falls to Northern Alliance. After a month on December 07th the Original base and center of power of Taliban, Kandhar was also occupied but before that Mullah Omar escaped and his location was unknown.
It was assumed that Bin Laden along with his Al-Qaida fighters flee to the Tora Bora mountains on the eastern border with Pakistan where he already had tunnelled range of well-equipped caves as safe harbour while fighting against Russians. That’s why the next wave of US bombing was directed against these mountains.
After the bombing, Afghan forces started to take over the caves one by one. By that time, a large number of Al-Qaeda troops were either captured or killed, training camps of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan were destroyed but the Taliban Leader Mullah Omar and Al-Qaida leader Bin Laden were still untraceable.
After the war, another dilemma raised the international concerns where Afghan prisoners are being assumed as Taliban soldiers and are being treated as such where some of them are being released and others have been given opportunity to change sides while the foreigners, mostly Arabs, are considered as Al-Qaeda members and treated as terrorists. These foreigners were sent to Guantanamo bay a US army base in Cuba, where they will be trial by secret military court or executed.
After this for Afghanistan’s stable political future, an interim government for six months was established in December 22, 2001 which was being governed by Hamid Karzi. After the tenure of the Interim government Hamid Karzi was also elected as the president of Afghanistan in 2002.